Archive for the 'Watersheds' Category

Impact of watersheds: some real stories

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Following is an excerpt from a report in Times of India.

Till recently, most families migrated to other areas to make a living. This went on till the villagers learnt how to conserve rainwater through watershed development.

Usually, the rainwater would drain off or simply dry up. Now, the community along with the Orissa government and NGOs has started watershed programmes to conserve water in wells, man-made ponds and bunds. The state government has set up a Watershed Development Mission — the first of its kind in India — to take up livelihood and community development programmes.

At the village level, watershed committees implement the programmes. The good thing is, women too have come to the forefront as agents of change. They have formed self-help groups (SHG) to supplement their income.

Malati Sabar’s is one such family in Suklimundi village, Nuapada. They used to migrate to brick kilns in Andhra Pradesh every year. Now, Malati collects mahua flowers to supplement her income while her husband, a small farmer, grows an annual paddy crop on their two-acre plot. Malati has also become a member of an SHG that retails kerosene. Recently, she took a loan from the SHG to buy a goat. "My life has changed ever since the watershed programme was introduced here," says Malati.

In western Orissa, the watershed programme is being jointly implemented by the government and Department for International Development (DFID) of the UK government under the Western Orissa Rural Livelihood Project (WORLP). "We are following a ‘watershed plus’ approach. The aim is to give people more livelihood options besides agriculture," says Sarat Behra, project director, Watershed Commission, Nuapada.Villagers say they are earning more from the same field and it’s regular income too. Moreover, they now have the option of both farm and non-farm activities in their villages. This has curtailed the seasonal distress migration.

Tunu Sabar of Larki village was one such migrant who would go to Andhra Pradesh during the lean season. "Hardly any work was available here. We couldn’t irrigate our fields or grow crops. Most of us went to Hyderabad, Bhuban-eshwar, even Surat to work in brick kilns or as labourers," he says. Life at the brick kilns was tough. Each family got Rs 5,000 as advance from the sardar along with a weekly food allowance. In the end, the sardar took his cut and the migrant was left with almost nothing. But now life’s looking up. Tunu now grows paddy, onions, vegetables, sunflowers etc, on his two-acre patch. He has built a low-cost onion storage area and his kaccha house has been replaced by a pucca one. He has a motorbike and even a telephone.

Similarly, Jamuna Sabar, a widow from Malpada village, used to work as a coolie during the lean months while her son went to Surat as a labourer. Now, they have dug a pond that helps them grow paddy and vegetables. "We plan to diversify our crops and start pisciculture too," says Jamuna.

Common cause

Watershed development is not just about livelihood but also capacity building. Awareness levels among villagers have gone up and community mobilisation is more easy. Ambahal village in Baragarh is a good example. Here, the watershed development community got together to shut the liquor shop so that the village could get aid from NGOs. "We realised we couldn’t get money unless everyone got together. So we shut the liquor shop. Now we are working to spread education, build roads, control malaria etc," says Kamilini Patnaik, chairperson, watershed development committee. Moreover, the community makes sure the development work touches the poorest first and then trickles up. The central government is now planning to replicate this success story in other states as well.

Four multi-purpose water projects for KBK: Samaja

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6.41 crore plan for Anshupa lake

Bhubaneswar- Cuttack- Puri, Cuttack, Drainage development, Lakes, Water harvesting, Watersheds 1 Comment »

Following is an excerpt from a news report in Pioneer.

Ansupa, Orissa’s largest fresh water lake, 70 km from here, is set to be revived at a cost of Rs 6.41 crore. The Finance Commission is funding the first phase of the project, during which the lake’s silt load is being removed.

… Chief Secretary Ajit Kumar Tripathy said the State Government aimed at bringing back both aquatic life and tourists to Ansupa. An existing channel would be revived to facilitate entry of water and trees would be planted on the banks of the lake to check soil erosion, he said, adding that development of ecotourism was an integral part of the project.

The lake previously used to boast of a picture perfect setting between Saranda and Bishnupur hills on the outskirts of the sub-divisional town of Athgarh and was home to migratory birds in winter. It, however, suffered a slow death due to severe erosion around its catchment area, silting and proliferation of algae and hyacinth plants. The lake’s depth has now been reduced to 10 feet from the original 40 feet.

The revival project, being implemented by the District Rural Development Agency, Cuttack, under the Ansupa Area Development Scheme, aims at reopening of the Kabulanala channel on the lake’s south-east side, which used to link it with the Mahanadi till an embankment was constructed on the river a decade back. The floodwaters used to enter the lake from the south-eastern side through the channel and flush out the weeds through a stream, Hulhullanala, which runs into the Mahanadi on the south-western side.

The proposed opening of the channel would revive the natural process of de-weeding as the embankment stalled this natural process and the water entering into the lake could not get released. The heavy silting had set in due to the soil erosion from Saranda hill on the lake’s western side and Bishnupur hill on its north-eastern side due to deforestation. Besides, conversion of the silted area into paddy fields worsened the situation.

Orissa Watershed Development Mission

Watersheds, Websites of Interest 1 Comment »

Following is from their web page.

The Orissa Watershed Development Mission (OWDM) is an autonomous State level agency constituted under the Department of Agriculture, Government of Orissa, responsible for planning, implementing and monitoring all Watershed Development programmes in the State. The OWDM was constituted by the Govt. of Orissa as a registered Society and came into existence on 30th June, 2000. Recognizing the importance of Watershed Development as a platform for poverty alleviation, the Government of Orissa created the OWDM to give a “Strategic Mission” focus to the programme. The mission is intends to provide the required focus, coordination and operational flexibilities in implementation of watershed concepts and approaches in the State.


To bring about social and economic transformation of the people in the State of Orissa by creating an enabling environment for development of sustainable natural resources, effective social mobilization and people centered institutions through Watershed based approaches.


To facilitate sustainable rural development in the State through watershed movement with a focus on marginalized and vulnerable rural sections of the society through sustainable initiatives, bringing in convergence in various developmental efforts, establishing new processes and practices, encouraging innovations through learning, building people-centered institutions and play catalytic role in the processes and policy formulation with the sole objective of improving livelihood options of the community with efficient natural resource management.

The OWDM acts as a facilitating organization with a responsibility of creating knowledge and resource by collaborating with the Agencies having expertise in various aspects of Watershed Development and functioning in a integral part of the Govt. of Orissa having adequate operational autonomy regarding interpretation of guidelines and accountability for improving the quality and process in watershed development programmes.


IWDP: Integrated Wasteland Development Project (IWDP), a Centrally Sponsored scheme of GoI, Ministry of Rural Development, is being implemented in 23 districts of the State. 501 micro-watersheds are currently under implementation, of which, 246 projects sanctioned prior to 1.4.2000 were with 100% grant from GoI. After 1.4.2000, the funding pattern between Government of India and State Government is in the ratio 11:1 at the new cost norm of Rs.6000/- per Ha. The total outlay of these projects is Rs.14807.15 lakh for treatment of wasteland area of 2.78 lakh Ha.

DPAP: Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), a Centrally Sponsored scheme of GoI, Ministry of Rural Development is being implemented in 8 districts of Orissa covering 47 identified drought prone blocks. 800 micro watershed projects are currently under implementation, of which, 192 projects sanctioned prior to 1.4.2000 were with funding pattern of 50:50 basis between GoI and State. The remaining 638 projects have been sanctioned after 1.4.2000 with the funding pattern of 75:25 basis at the new cost norm of Rs.6000/- per Ha. The total outlay of these projects is Rs.22740.25 lakh for treatment of 4.23 lakh Ha.

ACA: Out of Additional Central Assistance (ACA) of Planning Commission under Revised Long Term Action Plan (RLTAP) for KBK districts (Koraput, Nabarangpur, Rayagada, Malkangiri, Bolangir, Sonepur, Kalahandi and Nuapada), 314 micro watershed projects have been taken up in KBK districts since 2002-03. The total outlay of 314 micro watershed projects is Rs.10057.00 lakhs with a treatable area of 1.67 lakh Ha. This programme aims at drought proofing and improving the moisture regime in 314 micro watersheds with a view to improving agricultural productivity.

CDP: Coffee Development Programme for small growers in Koraput and Rayagada districts was taken under the RLTAP for KBK districts since 2002-03. The programme aims at providing gainful employment and a sustainable livelihood to tribal farmers through Usufruct / Dafayati rights enabling them to grow and own a small plantation of higher remunerative crop. In the first phase 2000 Ha (1000 hectare in each district) were programmed. Now, additional plan for expansion of this programme to another 8000 Ha. 4000 hectares in each district has been approved by Government for implementation. The total outlay of this programme is Rs.6721.21/- lakhs.

NWDPRA: National Watershed Development Projects for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) is in operation in the State since 1990-91 with a broad objective of resource management for enhancing of agricultural productivity and production to bio-mass on sustainable basis and restoration of ecological plans in rainfed areas.

RVP: River Valley Project (RVP) is being implemented in the catchment of inter state River Valley Project namely Hirakud, Machkund-Sileru, Rengali-Mandira and Upper Kolab with a view to combat land degradation problems and to prevent silt inflow into the reservoir. It is now proposed to continue treatment to saturate 29 ongoing watersheds and start treatment of 7 nos. of new watersheds at an outlay of 497.84 lakh over an area of 9720 ha.

Samaja ad: Well paying job opportunities in Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Projects

Balangir, Bargarh, Kalahandi, Nuapada, Watersheds 1 Comment »

Following is some background on the WORLP from their web page.


Western Orissa Rural Livelihoods Project (WORLP) works in four districts of the east Indian State of Orissa. The project was inaugurated in August 2000 by the Hon’ble Chief Minister, Shri Naveen Pattanaik. Full-scale field implementation activities began in October 2001. The four project districts; Bargarh, Balangir, Kalahandi and Nuapara are among the poorest in India. Health indicators are poor, there is a shortage of safe drinking water and drought recurs regularly. Inequitable social structures, distorted land distribution, indebtedness, and gender and other inequities contribute to the widespread poverty in western Orissa and impede access by poor and marginalised people to resources.

Supporting new patterns of rural development, WORLP contributes to reducing poverty by promoting livelihoods initiatives for the poorest. The livelihoods approach adopted by WORLP focuses on building, and working with, people’s existing strengths and resources. The approach is about informing, enabling, initiating and empowering appropriate choices for long-term well being. It involves all sections of rural society across caste, class, gender and other divides.

WORLP, a Government of Orissa initiative, is managed by the Orissa Watershed Development Mission. It is a joint venture of the Government of Orissa and DFID – the UK Department for International Development. Technical assistance to the project is provided by NR International of UK.

ADB to provide loans for water management projects

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Following is an excerpt from an IANS report that appears in many places including in Earth Times.

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has agreed in principle to provide loan assistance of Rs.1.2 billion for the Orissa Integrated Agriculture and Water Management project.

Monich Yakoyama, ADB’s senior water management specialist for South Asian countries, …

Yakoyama, who held discussions with senior state officials here today, said that the expert team was studying different small irrigation projects, watershed projects, canal systems and water panchayats and people’s participation in water management.The project plans to involve the maximum number of self-help groups to partner water management for increasing agricultural production.The ADB will release $180 million in the first phase and would supervise implementation of the water management projects on a regular basis. Special care would be taken to rehabilitate families who would be displaced during execution of the irrigation projects.

Samaja ad for Rural development positions in West Orissa

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Panchayati Raj and Rural Development

Annapurna Scheme, ARWSP, Credit cum subisdy Scheme, DDP, DPAP, IWDP, PMGSY, PMGY, RURAL & SPECIAL PROGRAMS, Samagra Awaas Yojana, SGRY, SGSY, Swajaldhara scheme, Total sanitation campaign - CRSP, Watersheds Comments Off on Panchayati Raj and Rural Development

Following are the various rural development schemes channeled through Panchayati Raj obtained from the central government web page.

  • SAMPOORNA GRAMEEN ROZGAR YOJANA(SGRY)The objectives of the Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana is to provide additional employment in the rural areas as also food security, alongside the creation of durable community, social and economic intrastrucutre in the rural areas. The programme is self-targeting in nature with special emphasis to provide Wage Employment to women, SCs, STs and parents of children withdrawn from hazardous occupations. This Programme is being implemented into two streams :-
    • The First Stream of the Programme will be implemented at the District and Intermediate level Panchayats. 50% of the funds are earmarked out of the total funds available under the SGRY and distributed between the District Panchayat and the Intermediate Panchayats in the ratio of 40:60.
    • The Second Stream of the Programme will be implemented at the Village Panchayat level. 50% of the SGRY funds are earmarked for this Stream. The entire funds are released to the Village Panchayats through the DRDAs/District Pachayats.
    The objective of SGSY is to bring the assisted poor families above the poverty line by providing them income generating assets through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy. The families of below poverty line (BPL) including artisans, identified through the BPL Census are eligible for assistance under the Scheme. While selecting the new activities priority may be given to those having inherent skill which is primarily constituted by the rural artisans. The role of PRIs in the implementation of this Scheme are as under:-

    • The Gram Sabha will approve the list of BPL families.
    • The list of key activities and the list of villages identified under the scheme in the Block should be approved by the Intermediate Panchayat.
    • The list of swarozgaris finally selected should be made available to the Gram Panchayat for placing it before the next Gram Sabha.
    • The Gram Panchayat would actively monitor the performance of the Swarozgaris particularly repayment of loan.
    • The District Panchayat will review the performance under this scheme in its General Body Meetings.
  • PRADHAN MANTRI GRAM SADAK YOJANA(PMGSY)This is a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme. This Scheme seeks to provide connectivity to all unconnected habitations in the rural areas with a population of more than 500 persons through good All-weather roads by the end of the Tenth Plan. In Hill States and Desert Areas, the objective would be to connect habitations with a population of 250 persons and above. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are as under:
    • The District Panchayats (or DRDAs where the District Panchayats do not exist) shall be the competent authority to select the variable best suited for the District, categories them and accord relative weightage to them and shall communicate it to all concerned.
    • The Plan should be finalized by the Intermediate Panchayat. Any changes made by the Intermediate Panchayat should be separately mentioned and reasons, thereof, should be indicated.
    • The Draft District Rural Roads Plan would be presented to the District Panchayat by the Chief Executive of the District Planning Committee. It should be discussed and adopted by the District Panchayat, with such changes, as may be considered appropriate, but strictly within the framework of the Manual.
    • The Rural Raods constructed/upgraded under this Programe will be maintained by the concerned District/Intermediate Panchayat. Efforts will be made to involve local peoples’ participation in the maintenance of Rural Roads.
    • All the Road Works will be subjected to Social Audit by way of discussion in the Gram Sabha and the relevant information in this regard will be made available to the Gram Sabha.
  • INDIRA AWAAS YOJANA (IAY) This scheme provides assistance primarily to the BPL rural households belonging primarily to SCs/STs and freed bonded labour categories. Benefits of the scheme have also been extended to families of servicemen of the armed and paramilitary forces killed in action. 3% of the houses are also reserved for BPL physically and mentally challenged persons living in rural areas. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are :
    • The Zilla Parishads or DRDAs on the basis of allocations made and targets fixed shall decide the number of houses to be constructed/upgraded Panchayat wise under IAY, during a particular financial year.
    • The Zila Parishads/ DRDAs shall intimate the same to the Gram Panchayat. Thereafter, the Gram Sabha will select the beneficiaries from the list of eligible households, according to IAY Guidelines as per priorities fixed, restricting this number to the target allotted.
    • Panchayat Samiti’s approval is not required. The Panchayat Samiti should however, be sent a list of selected beneficiaries for their information.
  • PRADHAN MANTRI GRAMODAYA YOJANA(PMGY) This scheme envisages allocation of Additional Central Assistance to the States/UTs for providing /improving the outlay of Basic Minimum Services including “Rural Shelter” in the rural areas. The funds under this Scheme are released by the Ministry of Finance/Ministry of Home Affairs on the basis of recommendations made by the Ministry of Rural Development, being the nodal Ministry for implementation and monitoring of the scheme. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are :
    • The Zilla Parishads/DRDAs will decide the number of houses to be constructed, Panchayat-wise, and the same will immediately be intimated to the Gram Panchayat.
    • The Gram Sabha will select the beneficiaries from the list of eligible households, restricting this number to the target allotted.
    • The Intermediate-level Panchayat (Panchayat Samiti) will invariably be sent a list of selected beneficiaries.
  • CREDIT CUM SUBSIDY SCHEME This Scheme targets rural families having annual income upto Rs.32,000/-. While subsidy is restricted to Rs.10,000/-, the maximum loan amount can be availed upto Rs.40,000/- under this scheme. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are :-
    • One of the Agencies for implementing the scheme is Zilla Panchayat. The identification of the most appropriate implementing agency under the Credit-cum Subsidy Scheme shall be left to the State Government.
  • SAMAGRA AWAAS YOJANA This is a comprehensive Housing Scheme with a view to ensuring integrated provision of shelter, sanitation and drinking water. This is being implemented in one block each off 25 districts of 24 States and one UT. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are :
    • The Zila Parishad, the Block Samiti and the Gram Panchayat will be fully involved in the implementation of this Scheme.
    • The special IEC funds of Rs. 5 lakh per district and habitat development funds of Rs. 20 lakh will be routed through DRDAs. DRDAs/ZPs and Public Health Department will be the main implementing agencies.
  • INNOVATIVE SCHEME FOR HOUSING AND HABITAT DEVELOPMENT AND RURAL BUILDING CENTRES The innovative scheme for housing and habitat development has been designed for standardizing and popularizing/ replicating/propagating cost-effective, environment-friendly housing construction technologies, designs and materials and evolving ideal types of sustainable rural human settlements consistent with agro-climatic variations and natural disaster proneness. The Rural Building Centres Scheme is inter alia designed with the purpose of technology transfer and information dissemination, skill up gradation through training and production of cost effective and environment friendly material components.
    • Panchayati Raj Institutions are one of the Implementing Agencies under these schemes.
  • ANNAPURNA The Annapurna Scheme aims at providing food security to meet the requirement of those senior citizens who though eligible have remained uncovered under the National Old Age Pension Scheme. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are :
    • The Panchayats identifies the Beneficiaries and communicate the same to Collector/CEO.
    • The Gram Sabhas are required to select the Beneficiaries for the Scheme and the lists of beneficiaries so selected by Gram Sabha will be displayed by the Gram Panchayats.
    • The Gram Panchayats distribute the Entitlement Cards to the Beneficiaries in Gram Sabha Meetings.
    • The Gram Panchayats will give wide publicity to the Scheme and will also be responsible for dissemination of information in regard to the procedure for securing benefits under the Scheme.
  • WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES UNDER DPAP AND DDP: The Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Prograamme (DDP) and Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP) are being implemented on watershed basis and aim at drought proofing and controlling desertification by regeneration of depleted natural resource base. All these three programmes were brought under the Guidelines for Watershed Development with effect from 1.4.1995. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are :
    • The District Panchayats and other Panchayati Raj Institutions shall have very important role to play in Watershed Development Programmes.
    • The PRIs shall have the right to monitor and review the implementation of the programme and provide guidance for improvements in the administrative arrangements and procedures with a view to ensure convergence of other programmes of Ministry of Rural Development such as SGRY, SGSY, IAY, CRSP, Rural Drinking Water Supply, etc.
    • At the Village level, the Gram Panchayat shall be fully involved in the implementation of the programme, specially community organization, formation of SHGs and training programmes.
    • Gram Panchayat will be responsible for operatio and meaintenance of assets created during the project.
    • The Watershed Action Plan should have the approval of Gram Sabha and it should be a part of annual action plan of Gram Sabha.
    • The District Panchayat/DRDA in whose favour the project has been sanctioned will be entitled to affect recovery of funds from any institutions/ organization/ individuals and take appropriate action under law if the project is not properly implemented for funds are misutilised or not spent as per Guidelines.
    • The Panchayats at any level are also entitled to take on the responsibility of implementing a cluster of watershed projects in the capacity of Project Implementation Agencies(PIAs), if they so desire.
    • PIAs will motivate the Gram Panchayats to pass necessary resolutions to make public contribution, conduct Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) exercises, prepare the development plans for the watershed, undertake community organization and training for the village communities, provide technical guidance and supervision of watershed Development activities, inspect and authenticate project accounts, undertake action research to adapt low-cost technologies and /or validate and build upon indigenous technical knowledge, monitor and review the overall project maintenance and further development of the assets created during the project period.
    • Under the new initiate ‘Haryali’, the watershed programmes are to be executed by the Gram Panchayats by facilitating project funds to them. The District and Intermediate Panchayars are to act as PIAs
  • ACCELERATED RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAMME (ARWSP) Under ARWSP, the Central Government is to supplement the efforts of the State Governments in providing access to safe drinking water to all rural habitations of the country. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are :
    • Panchayati Raj Institutions should be involved in the implementation of schemes particularly in selecting the location of standpost, spot sources, operation and maintenance, fixing of cess/water tariff, etc.
    • The implementation of the Sector Reform Projects in the identified pilot districts, are also to be carried out either by the District Panchayats or through the District Water and Sanitation Missions (DWSM), which are to be registered societies under the supervision, control and guidance of District Panchayat.
    • Wherever PRIs are themselves firmly in place and willing to take up the responsibility and are strong enough to do so, they implement the projects themselves instead of DWSM.
    • At the village level, the individual Rural Water Supply Schemes are to be implemented through Village Water and Sanitation Committees which should be committees of Gram Panchayats.
    • Drinking water supply assets are transferred to the appropriate level of Panchayats and such Panchayats are to be empowered to undertake operation and maintenance of drinking water systems.
  • CENTRAL RURAL SANITATION PROGRAMME(CRSP) This programme aims at improving the general quality of life in rural areas; accelerating coverage in rural areas; generating demand through awareness creation and health education; and controlling incidence of water sanitation related diseases. The role of PRIs in implementation if this scheme are :
    • Total Sanitation Campain (TSC) is a community based programme where Panchayati Raj Institutons are in the forefront.
    • As per TSC Guidelines, the implementation at the district level is to be done by the District Panchayats. Panchayats at block and village level are to be fully involved for implementation of the programme.
    • Where District Panchayat is not in a position to implement the programme, it is being implemented by District Water & Sanitation Mission which is chaired by Chairperson of District Panchayat and the Village Committees are chaired by the Chairpersons of Gram Panchayats. In the later case, the Village Water & Sanitation Mission are part of the Gram Panchayat.
  • SWAJALDHARA This programme aims at providing Community-based Rural Drinking Water Supply. The key elements of this programmes are namely, (i) demand-driven and community participation approach, (ii) panchayats / communities to plan, implement, operate, maintain and manage all drinking water schemes, (iii) partial capital cost sharing by the communities upfront in cash, (iv) full ownership of drinking water assets with Gram Panchayats and (v) full Operation and Maintenance by the users/ Panchayats. The role of PRIs in implementation of this scheme are :
    • Gram Panchayat shall convene a Gram Sabha Meeting where the Drinking Water Supply Scheme of People’s choice including design and cost etc. must be finalized. Gram Panchayats are to undertake procurement of materials/services for execution of schemes and supervise the scheme execution.
    • A resolution must be passed in the Gram Panchayat meeting calling for users/beneficiaries to contribute 10% of the capital expenditure. However, GP can remit towards community contribution from its tax revinue (Not from Government Grants) with the approval of Gram Sabha.
    • Gram Panchayat will decide whether the Panchayat wants to execute Scheme on its own or wants the State Government Agency to undertake the execution.
    • After completion of such schemes, the Gram Panchayat will take over the Schemes for Operation & Maintenance(O&M).
    • Panchayat must decide on the user charges from the community so that adequate funds available with Panchayat to undertake O&M.

Watershed mission activities for landless families and other such plans

Coffee development, Countering drought, KBK Plus district cluster, Koraput, Rayagada, River Valley Project, RURAL & SPECIAL PROGRAMS, TRIBAL WELFARE, Watersheds 1 Comment »

New Indian Express reports on some of these plans. Following are some excerpts from that report.

The State Government has decided to prepare a five year plan to expand the activities of the Watershed Mission to benefit six lakh landless families.

Official sources said that the activities of the Mission would be intensified in areas inhabited by tribals of the Juang community to create employment opportunities.

Mission activities include digging of ponds to meet the water requirement in the villages and promotion of dairy and horticulture. …

Other projects undertaken under the Mission include the Integrated Watershed Development Project (IWDP), a centrally sponsored programme implemented in 23 districts. The outlay of the project has been fixed at Rs 148.07 crore for 2.78 lakh hectare.

The Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), another centrally sponsored scheme is being implemented in eight districts covering 47 identified drought prone blocks.

Sources said that 800 micro watershed projects have already been executed while another 600 are being implemented. The total expenditure has been pegged at Rs 227.4 crore .

Besides, 314 micro watershed projects have been taken up by the Mission in the KBK districts for treatment of 1.67 hectare with an expenditure of Rs 100.57 crore.

Coffee Development Programme (CDP) for small growers has also been taken up under the Mission in Koraput and Rayagada districts.

The programme aims at providing sustainable livelihood to tribal farmers. In the first phase, coffee cultivation was taken up in 2,000 hectares, 1,000 hectares each in the two districts. In the second phase, the programme would be implemented in more than 8,000 hectares with Rs 67.21 crore.

The River Valley Project (RVP) is being implemented in the catchment of inter-state projects, Hirakud, Machhkund- Sileru, Rengali-Mandira and Upper Kolab dam projects to prevent land degradation and prevent silt inflow. The expenditure has been pegged at Rs 4.97 crore.